Ok so you have an ASCII table
https://www.asciitable.com/
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
This is what's used as the template for assigning letters and numbers to Binary.
If you like it's the alphabet of binary.
You see on the left hand side it says "DEC" and the reference for "A" is "65"
If you wanted to say
Hello in decimal it would be
72 101 108 108 111
So Hello in Binary is
Example
01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111
Explanation of
01001000
01001000 represents H (decimal equivalen 72)
You will notice each binary letter is 8 digits
You work it out from right to left
It's stored in BITS - and it goes to the power of 2, so starting right,
1st number=1, 2nd number =2, 3rd number=4, 4th number =8
(1*2=1) (2*2=4) (4*2=8) (8*2=16) (16*2=32) (32*2=64) (64*2=128)
It finishes off like this
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
For H
The bits turned on and off are represented by 1's and 0's
For H bits 128, 32, 16, 4, 2 and 1 are all switched off
BITS 64, 8 are turned on
Therefore the Binary translation is now
64+8= 72